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Configure multiple languages to enable multilingual sites.

Hinode supports Hugo’s multilingual mode  to create websites with multiple languages side by side. The next paragraphs explain how to configure multiple languages, how to provide content translations, and how to define multilingual messages and keywords.

Language configuration

Define the languages available to your site in the main site configuration. The below configuration shows the default configuration set in config/_default/languages.toml for the English language.

    languageName = "English"
    contentDir = "content"
    weight = 1

The default behavior is set in config/_default/hugo.toml. For example, you can set the defaultContentLanguageInSubdir to false to remove the language slug /en from your site entirely.

languageCode = "en-us"
defaultContentLanguage = "en"
defaultContentLanguageInSubdir = false

Content translation

Hugo supports multiple ways to define translated content. Hinode uses an approach to define translations in separate directories for each language. In the default settings, content for the English language is defined in the folder content/en. It is recommended to use the same filename for each page translation. This enables Hugo to recognize if a page translation is available. Hinode links to this translation in the main navigation bar.

For example, consider the About page. It is available in both English and Dutch. The content files are defined in content/en/ and content/nl/ Hugo now recognizes the page is available in two languages. To translate the URL for the Dutch page, a slug is defined the page’s frontmatter:

slug: "over-mij"

The English page is available by navigating to /en/about and the Dutch translation is available on /nl/over-mij. The main navigation item shows a language switcher for both translations.


Hinode uses Hugo’s internationalization function  to translate keywords and messages. Translations are available in English, Dutch, and German. For example, the translation for the word about in the Dutch language is defined in i18n/nl.yaml (strictly speaking, it translates to about me).

# Content
- id: about
  translation: "Over mij"

Discarding localization

The Hinode template  defines two languages by default. Follow the next steps to discard the Dutch language (nl code) entirely:

  • Remove the folder content/nl and its nested content
  • Remove the entire [nl] section in config/_default/languages.toml
  • Remove the file section in config/_default/menus
  • Set the value defaultContentLanguageInSubdir to false in config/_default/hugo.toml
Last updated: August 4, 2023 • Convert to link shortcode (494dc38)